The 13 attributes of Allāh that every accountable person is obligated to know.
The first attribute of these attributes is Existence which means that Allāh exists and He does not resemble the creations. He exists without a beginning and without an end and without a place just as it is revealed in the verse meaning there is no doubt about the existence of Allāh.
The second attribute is Oneness which means that Allāh has no partner with Him in Godhood and His Self does not resemble the self of the creations. His attributes do not resemble the attributes of the creations and His actions do no resemble the actions of the creations just as it has been revealed in the verse meaning had there been a creator for the heavens and earth other than Allāh then the heavens and the earth would not have remained stable.
The third attribute is Eternity which means that Allāh has no beginning to His existence.
The fourth attribute is Everlastingness which means that Allāh is not subject to annihilation nor non-existence. Just as it is revealed in the verse meaning that Allāh is the only one without a beginning and the only one that it is intellectually impossible for Him to be attributed with an end. The name of Allāh “Al-Awwal” means the one who’s existence is not preceded by non-existence and the name of Allāh “Al-Aakhir” means the one who is not subject to annihilation.
The fifth attribute is Non-neediness of others which means that our Lord does not need anything and everything needs him. Just as Allāh revealed the verse meaning Indeed Allāh does not need any of the creations.
The sixth attribute is Power which means that Allāh has power over all things and nothing renders him incapable just as it was revealed in the verse meaning Indeed Allāh has power over every thing.
The seventh attribute is Will which means that everything Allāh willed to occur then it is inevitable for it to exist at the exact time that Allāh willed for it to be. Everything that Allāh did not will to exist will never exist just as Allāh revealed in the verse which means and you do not will except what Allāh The Lord of the universe wills.
The Eight attribute is Knowledge, therefore nothing is hidden from Allāh just as He revealed the verse meaning and Allāh’s knowledge has encompassed all.
The ninth attribute is Hearing which means that Allāh hears all hearable things without an ear nor any other instrument and without anything being hidden from him just as Allāh revealed the verse meaning And He is the one who is attributed with hearing and sight.
The tenth attribute is Sight which means that Allāh sees all the seeable things without the need of light or an eyeball and nothing is hidden from him just as Allāh revealed in the verse meaning And He is attributed with Hearing and Sight.
The eleventh attribute is Life and it is a life that does not resemble our life it has no beginning and it has no end. It is not a life composed of a soul or a body, instead, it is an eternal and everlasting attribute that befits Allāh and is not like our life just as Allāh revealed in the verse meaning, Allah there is no God but Him the one attributed with Life and Everlastingness.
The twelfth attribute is Speech and it is just as we have mentioned that is does not resemble our speech, it is not a letter, sound, nor language just as Allāh revealed in the verse saying and Allāh enabled Prophet Moses to hear His eternal and everlasting speech.
The thirteenth attribute is non-resemblance to the creations which means that Allāh is clear from all attributes of the creations. Because the attributes of the creations point to that it is in need of a creator. Therefore had Allāh been attributed with these attributes then he would have been in need of a creator and God is clear from all of that. The proof for that is the explicit verse meaning “There is absolutely nothing like him.”
Benefit: Since eternity is confirmed to the Self (dhāt) of Allah, His attributes are eternal; because a created attribute entails that the attributed self is created. Explanation: Whatever is attributed with a created attribute then it is inevitable that it itself is created this is why it is not permissible for Allāh to be attributed with a created attribute. Some of those who resemble God to the creations like Ibn Taymiyah from the corruption of their minds they say Allāh speaks like us with speech that is a letter, sound, and language and this is blasphemy because it contains resembling Allāh to His creation then they add to that and say His Speech is eternal without a beginning so they contradict themselves.
Those people are as if they have no mind and that is because we know by using our senses that the letter is created and the sound is created. If you said bismi then you have pronounced the Baa’ before the Seen and the Seen before the Meem and whatever is like that then no doubt it is created. How do they say after this that Allāh is attributed with letters and sounds and then they add to it and say that they are eternal without a beginning!? This is invalid contradictory speech without a doubt. Since it is confirmed using the mind and the religious texts that the self of Allāh is eternal without a beginning then it is obligatory for the attributes to be eternal without a beginning.
Imām Abū Haneefah may Allāh raise his rank said in his book Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar: “And His attributes are eternal without a beginning and not created. Whoever says that they have a beginning or created or was neutral about it or doubted about it then such a person is a blasphemer.”
Imām Ahmad Ar-rifā^iyy may Allāh raise his rank said: “The ultimate knowledge about Allāh is to have the certainty that He exists without a how and without a place.”
Imām Dhun-noun Al-Misriyy may Allāh have mercy upon him: “Whatever you imagine in your mind Allāh is different from that.”
Imām At-tahawiyy may Allāh have mercy upon him said: “And whoever attributes human attributes to Allāh has blasphemed.”
Imān Ash-shāfi^iyy said: “The one who attributes bodily attributes to Allāh is a blasphemer.” This was conveyed by As-suyoutiyy in the Al-Ashbāh wa An-nadhā’ir. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal said something similar to that: “The one who attributes bodily attributes to Allāh is a blasphemer even if he says that He is a body unlike other bodies.” This was conveyed by the Hāfidh Badr Ad-deen Az-zarkashiyy in Tashneef Al-Masāmi^.
Ash-shāfi^iyy said: “Whoever believes that Allāh is sitting on the throne then such a person is a blasphemer.” This was conveyed by Ibn Al-Mu^allim Al-Qurashiyy.